Demonstrative adjectives (this, that, these, those) are words which indicate a specific noun. Spanish demonstrative adjectives are more complicated than their English counterparts, because there are three different sets.
In Spanish, suffixes called diminutives can be added to nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and names to indicate smallness, as well as other ideas such as affection, humor, pity, irony, or ridicule. In this way, you can say that something is little without adding an adjective like pequeño to indicate smallness or querido to indicate affection.
A direct object is a noun, whether person or thing, that someone or something acts upon. In the simplest sentences, the direct object directly follows the verb, so it’s very easy to see the effect that the verb has on the noun.
There are about a dozen Spanish verbs which must be conjugated with an indirect object pronoun, such as gustar and importar. This grammatical construction does not exist in English, but it’s not difficult once you get used to it.
An indirect object is a person that someone or something does something to indirectly. In the simplest sentences, the indirect object directly follows a verb + preposition, so it’s very easy to see the effect that the verb has on that person.
Qué, cuál, and cuánto are Spanish interrogative adjectives. An adjective is a word that modifies a noun, and interrogative means questioning, so interrogative adjectives are adjectives used to ask the questions "what," "which," and how "much/many."
The Spanish prepositions por and para tend to be difficult for Spanish students, because they can – but don’t always – both mean "for." Por is considerably more common, so in theory, you might be able to get away with just memorizing the uses for para and then using por for everything else. In reality, it’s good to learn the rules, so here they are.
Possessive pronouns are the words which replace nouns modified by possessive adjectives. In Spanish there are different forms of possessive pronouns depending on whether the noun is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
The Spanish present progressive, or present continuous, is very similar to its English counterpart (to be + -ing). In both languages, the present progressive expresses an in-progress action, with an emphasis on its current, temporary aspect.