Variable Subjunctive

Variable Spanish subjunctive
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Subjuntivo variable

Obviousness, knowledge, and certainty are considered real – at least to the speaker – and therefore do not call for the subjunctive. Using these verbs and expressions in the negative or interrogative, however, indicates doubt: thus the subjunctive is required.

conocer (a alguien) que   to know (someone) who
creer que   to believe that
decir que   to say that
es cierto que   it is certain that
es claro que   it’s clear that
es evidente que   it is obvious that
es seguro que   it is certain that
es una realidad   it’s a fact that
es un hecho   it’s a fact that
es verdad que   it is true that
estar cierto que   to be certain that
estar seguro de que   to be sure that
pensar que   to think that
saber que   to know that

Por ejemplo …

¿Crees que él sea triste?   Do you believe he’s sad?
Sí, creo que es triste.   Yes, I believe he’s sad.
No, no creo que sea triste.   No, I don’t believe he’s sad.

In contrast, the verbs dudar (to doubt) and negar (to deny) take the subjunctive when they are affirmative, but not when they are negative.

Dudo que venga.   I doubt he’ll come.
No dudo que viene.   I don’t doubt that he’ll come.

 More Spanish subjunctive

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Spanish subjunctive