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Spanish languageSpanish Gerund - Gerundio

The English gerund is the -ing form of the verb. In Spanish, it's the -ndo form.

Formation Regular verbs
I. -AR verbs Drop the infinitive ending and add -ando.
hablar hablando
tomar tomando
mirar mirando
II. -ER verbs, -IR verbs Drop the infinitive ending and add -iendo.
aprender aprendiendo
comer comiendo
poner poniendo
abrir abriendo
describir describiendo
escribir escribiendo
Formation Irregular Verbs
I.  Verbs with stem that ends in vowel - Drop the infinitive and add -yendo.
caer cayendo
leer leyendo
traer trayendo
II.  -IR verbs with stem-change in third person preterite - Same stem-change in the present participle.
decir diciendo
dormir durmiendo
pedir pidiendo
poder pudiendo
venir viniendo
III.  Ir (to go) --> yendo
Escuché los pájaros cantando.
Usage - The Spanish gerund has two main uses.
I. Gerund - An impersonal verb form which is used as an adjective or adverb to express an action in progress. It is used to refer to an action which is simultaneous with or prior to the action of the other verb in the sentence. 
Caminando por la plaza, vi a mi abuelo.  While walking in the plaza, I saw my grandfather.
Pasó todas sus vacaciones esperando una sorpresa. He spent his entire vacation waiting for a surprise.
Aprendo mucho estudiando con ellos.  I learn a lot by studying with them.
II.  Progressive / Continuous Tenses
Present Estoy leyendo. I am reading.
Imperfect Estaban estudiando. They were studying.
Past Estuve leyendo. I was reading.
Future Estará trabajando. He will be working.
Note The Spanish gerund cannot be used as a noun, the way it is in English and French. This is a common mistake, even for native Spanish speakers.
X Me gusta leyendo. --> Me gusta leer.
X Trabajando es importante. --> Trabajar es importante.


Escuché los pájaros cantando. --> Escuché los pájaros cantar.

Gerund with Object Pronouns

Past participle     Spanish verbs


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