There is, there are
Hay is a very common Spanish expression. It is equivalent to the English expression "there is" or "there are:"
|Hay un libro en la mesa.||There’s a book on the table.|
|Hay tres hombres en la clase.||There are three men in the class.|
|Hay muchas cosas a hacer.||There’s a lot to do (There are lots of things to do).|
Hay is the present tense impersonal form of the verb haber, and can be followed by a singular or plural noun.
In other tenses and moods, the impersonal verb haber has both singular and plural impersonal conjugations, but most Spanish speakers consider use of the plurals as incorrect. I’ve provided both forms here for reference.
|conditional||habría||there would be|
|habrían||there would be|
|future||habrá||there will be|
|habrán||there will be|
|present perfect||ha habido||there have been|
|han habido||there have been|
|subjunctive||que haya||that there is/are|
|que hayan||that there are|
When followed by an infinitive, hay que means "it is necessary to" or "one has to:"
|Hay que estudiar cada día.||It’s necessary to study every day.|
|Hay que trabajar para triunfar en la vida.||One has to work in order to succeed in life.|