In general, Spanish nouns that end in o are masculine, and those that end in a are feminine. Here are the exceptions to this rule.
Spanish vowels are divided into two categories: hard and soft. Hard vowels (A, O, U) cause the consonant that precedes them to be pronounced with a hard sound, while soft vowels (E, I) are preceded by a soft sound.
There are about a dozen Spanish verbs which must be conjugated with an indirect object pronoun, such as gustar and importar. This grammatical construction does not exist in English, but it’s not difficult once you get used to it.
The Spanish prepositions por and para tend to be difficult for Spanish students, because they can – but don’t always – both mean "for." Por is considerably more common, so in theory, you might be able to get away with just memorizing the uses for para and then using por for everything else. In reality, it’s good to learn the rules, so here they are.
It’s vital to understand the distinctions between pretérito and imperfecto in order to use them correctly and thus express past events accurately.
The grammatical term “pronominal” means “relating to a pronoun,” so pronominal verbs require a reflexive pronoun. They’re often incorrectly referred to as reflexive verbs, when in fact the latter are just one type of pronominal verb. The defining characteristic of pronominal verbs is that their subjects are acting upon themselves. Pronominal verbs are much more common in Spanish than in English.
The Spanish letter R is pronounced by rolling or trilling the tip of the tongue against the roof of the mouth – learn more.
In Spanish, you will often see an object pronoun, either direct or indirect, used in addition to the actual noun that it would normally replace. This redundant object pronoun may be required or simply stylistic.
Just like in English, a Spanish relative pronoun (que, quien, donde, el que, el cual) links a dependent/relative clause (i.e., a clause that cannot stand alone) to a main clause.
The Spanish verbs saber and conocer can both be translated by the English verb “to know,” but they are used in completely different situations.