Guest author Gabriela Madera explains some differences in Argentinian Spanish: the pronunciation of yo and the use of vos in place of tú.
Demonstrative pronouns (this one, that one, the one[s], these, those) refer to a previously-mentioned noun in a sentence. Spanish demonstrative pronouns are more complicated than their English counterparts, because there are three different sets and because they must agree in gender and number with the noun they replace.
A direct object is a noun, whether person or thing, that someone or something acts upon. In the simplest sentences, the direct object directly follows the verb, so it’s very easy to see the effect that the verb has on the noun.
The Spanish relative pronoun donde means “where” and is often preceded by a preposition.
A Spanish sentence can have both a direct object and an indirect object pronoun. These “double object pronouns” cannot be separated, and the indirect pronoun always precedes the direct pronoun.
The Spanish relative pronoun el cual usually means "who" or "whom" and has four different forms.
A relative pronoun links a dependent/relative clause (i.e., a clause that cannot stand alone) to a main clause. The Spanish relative pronoun el que usually means "who" or "whom" and has four different forms.
El que has different forms in order to agree in gender and number with the noun it replaces:
Ello is the Spanish neuter subject pronoun, used to mean “it” when referring to something non-specific.
Spanish indefinite pronouns, sometimes called affirmative indefinite pronouns, are unspecific and are used in place of nouns. They can be the
subject of a sentence object of a verb object of a preposition Todo el mundo está aquí. Everyone is here. Compró algo. He bought something. Tengo un regalo para alguien.
There are about a dozen Spanish verbs which must be conjugated with an indirect object pronoun, such as gustar and importar. This grammatical construction does not exist in English, but it’s not difficult once you get used to it.